During the “Connecting the Arts to Local Collections” graduate courses at the University of the Arts, students examine primary sources from direct access to local collections as well as from the digital resources available from the Library of Congress. Using resources that are easily available to teachers increases their interest and engagement in teaching and in turn increases their students interest and engagement in learning. This summer’s course is “STEM to STEAM: Connecting the Arts to STEM and Local Collections”.
Local collections of fine art and literature are easily connected to Science, Engineering, Math and Technology, especially in cities like Philadelphia. Not four blocks from my house is the Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site. Poe is known for his prolific writings and poetry, but he was also mesmerized by science fiction. The online historic site in Philadelphia provides curriculum materials for teachers, however there are many resources in the Library of Congress digital materials that tie together Poe’s interest in space, time travel, and scientific discoveries, especially airflight. Here are a few links from the Library of Congress that explore the world of early air travel and inspired Poe’s science fiction writing.
Using prompts like these in a classroom can spark imagination and inventiveness. Perhaps these sources could be used as an introduction to flying machines and students could collaboratively create their own flying machines, perhaps in a Makerspace area in schools and libraries. Or used as a writing prompt, students can be inspired to write science fiction like Poe.
While searching the Library’s poster collections during my research for our upcoming WPA Posters teacher’s guide, I came across a World War I poster showing a soldier carrying a huge stack of books.
The TPS analysis method encourages students to be curious, and to ask questions about the things that surprise them, or challenge their expectations. The posters surprised me, and I wanted to learn a little more. When I came across the first poster, I decided to do a search on the World War I Posters collection (https://www.loc.gov/collections/world-war-i-posters/about-this-collection/) for “Books” which yielded 24 items.
I had honestly never thought about the need for books during a war. These posters make me wonder about the daily life of a soldier during the first world war. How was most of his time spent? What was daily life like for soldiers during the Gulf War? How was it the same? What were some differences?
Books were not the only entertainments available to soldiers during the first world war; this poster asks people to weed their record collections, and donate those they are not playing much, the "slackers." Slacker is a term that came to mean "shirker" during this period, and carried the connotation of someone who was unpatriotic for refusing to participate.
For educators looking to use Library of Congress images that are not copyrighted, here are two important Creative Commons developments:
New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art releases 375,000 digital works for remix and re-use online via CC0.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York has announced that all public domain images in its collection will be shared under CC0, expanding their digital collection by over 375,000 images as well as providing data on over 420,000 museum objects spanning more than 5,000 years. CC0 allows anyone to use, re-use, and remix a work without restriction.
Creative Commons Search Prototype
Creative Commons also has a new Image Search engine available in Beta - search the Met's images, along with other creative commons licensed images, to find an open image.
From the post on the TPS Network:
At this contentious political moment, I thought it would be interesting to consider comics as political protest. The tradition of the editorial cartoon has long been a place for political commentary, but narrative comics have been somewhat more circumspect. Most appearances are benign, as when Richard Nixon shows up to ask the Fantastic Four for help, or parodying, like Frank Miller’s Max Headroom-esque Reagan in The Dark Knight Returns. But there are good examples of overt political speech in the comics page, as in Harold Gray’s Daddy Warbucks denouncing FDR’s New Deal as socialist interference. However, a moment that stands out is when Walt Kelly took on Senator McCarthy and nativism via the funny animals of the Okeefenokee Swamp in Pogo.
The storyline begins in 1953 with the introduction of Mole McAroney who arrives in the swamp seeking to root out what is and isn’t “American” and which creatures of the swamp are “native” or “migratory.” These were Disney-style funny animal strips, but Kelly’s myopic germophobe Mole couldn’t have been mistaken for mere comedy. He advocates in one strip the burning of a book that does not agree with his worldview. Even couched in the established visual world of Pogo, the politics in question would have been unmistakable, but it was the subsequent introduction of Simple J Malarkey, a character directly lampooning, and resembling, recently re-elected Senator Joseph McCarthy, that truly created controversy.
Despite some attempts at censorship, the strip was popular, so it endured. In a 2003 article for the Journal of American Culture, “Subversion in the Swamp: Pogo and the Folk in the McCarthy Era,” Eric Dussere writes: “Kelly’s subversive activities were made possible through his invocation of peculiarly American mythologies about ‘‘the folk,’’ through a representation of leftist politics as good old American common sense.” His skill as a gag cartoonist and storyteller didn’t hurt, as the strips are formally amusing and internally cohesive. Any child could follow along, and laugh at, the stories without the first idea of current events, though that is surely what made them so subversive. Of course these “leftist politics” were simply a repudiation of McCarthyism, a position that is hardly considered radical today. Part of what stands out to me now is that Pogo was so unique in calling out obvious miscarriages of justice. But the comics page by the 1950’s had developed into an anodyne form of entertainment, so much so that Kelly’s allegories periodically landed Pogo on the editorial page, just as Gary Trudeau’s Doonesbury would several decades later. But despite occasional banishment to the editorial page, Kelly returned to political stories over the strip’s remaining 2 decades, satirizing J Edgar Hoover and Spiro Agnew, among others.
The Mole McAroney/Simple J Malarkey storyline could be a good way to discuss satire and political rhetoric in a historical context that has implications for, but does not directly address, some of our current issues. Kelly also has the formal chops to be worth studying on his artistic merits; the strips are expertly fashioned, providing potential lessons in caricature, basic cartooning, lettering, dialogue, composition, serial narrative, and visual storytelling.
Here is a link to a blog with readable scans of the strips: http://dallapoza.blogspot.com/2009/07/1.html
The LOC has these, among numerous original Pogo pages. They are searchable in the database but not viewable online, presumably due to copyright restrictions, so alternate sources may be needed for classroom use. Fantagraphics Books has republished these strips recently in Pogo vol. 3: Evidence to the Contrary, which is widely available.
The LOC record for one page from this story:
[Pogo]. "Good gracious, Mr. Malarkey, I had no idea you were nearby" – LOC # 2016682558 - https://www.loc.gov/item/2016682558/
You can see some pages of Lee & Kirby’s Fantastic Four #103 here: http://www.giantsizemarvel.com/2009/02/thing-tuesdays-ben-grimm-and-richard.html
“Hooverism in the Funnies”, Neuberger, Richard L. July 1934. New Republic, Vol. 79 Issue 1023, July 1934. p234
“Subversion in the Swamp: Pogo and the Folk in the McCarthy Era”. Erik Dussere. Journal of American Culture. Vol. 26, #1. March 2003, pp134-141.
An installation at the Milwaukee Art Museum uses historical fiction, as well as extensive primary source research, to gain a deeper understanding of Early America. The exhibition was put together by Sarah Carter, curator and director of research at the Chipstone Foundation, in partnership with the Milwaukee Art Museum. Chipstone’s mission is to promote and enhance knowledge of American material culture (emphasizing the decorative arts) by scholars, students and the general public. They have been dedicated to providing primary source material by giving access to their extensive collection of objects at museums, through courses at the University of Wisconsin, and digitally, on the web. I should note that when I started out as a librarian, my first job was putting together a digital library for material culture at the University of Wisconsin, funded by Chipstone, and back in grad school at UW, I worked on an exhibition of items from the Chipstone Collection.
Mrs. M----‘s Cabinet is nothing like the label-heavy, glass-vitrine laden show my fellow art history grad students and I worked on. Instead, it is a complete environment of layered meanings and interpretations. To begin with, it is presented as a group of artifacts amassed by the ghost of a 19th century collector, whose enthusiasm for ceramics began when she was a child “mud larking” along the James River in Virginia. What we see at the exhibition are ceramics, and other objects related to Early America, whether made or used in America, or objects that provide the historical context for those items. The ceramics and furniture in the exhibition are historic, not reproductions. However, they are presented in a room that was specially created for the exhibition, in the style of a very fashionable, extravagant 19th century interior. Mrs. M--- herself is an invention, an invention based on careful reading of primary sources, but fictional nonetheless. The exhibit challenges the ideas of what America was like in the early days of the Republic, and changes the focus from a colony completely focused on Great Britain, to a more global, cosmopolitan settlement, claiming land already “discovered” and occupied by indigenous cultures. It also challenges the idea of what a “real” artifact is.
I am intrigued by this unorthodox presentation of what can be pretty dry material. I feel like the fictionalizing of the collector allows the viewer to ask all sorts of questions, which may have felt unreasonable in a traditional, label-bound exhibit. As Diane M. Bacha says in her review of the exhibit for the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, “this installation is less about interpreting objects for visitors and more about inviting them to find their own interpretations.” http://archive.jsonline.com/entertainment/arts/mysterious-fictional-character-created-to-bring-art-to-life-at-mam-b99687087z1-372564511.html Isn’t that just what we ask our students to do when they analyze a primary source using the TPS method?
Not all of us can make it to Milwaukee to see Mrs. M-----‘s Cabinet. However, the Chipstone Foundation’s commitment to innovative technology allows us to experience it online. Take a look for yourself at http://mrsmscabinet.org/
This week, our nation commemorated the 75th anniversary of one of its most pivotal moments. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred on a Sunday morning, resulting in massive casualties of more than 1,100 US service members. With such a blatant affront to the country’s freedom, the United States could no longer remain an isolationist nation. As President Franklin Delano Roosevelt prepared his remarks to address his wounded country, he had to think carefully to balance his peoples’ need for a rallying cry with the ramifications of his words on United States foreign policy. December 7, 1941, the “Day of Infamy”, called the Greatest Generation to action.
While many of us are old enough to be blessed with interacting with these men and women who sacrificed so much, our future students will be tasked with understanding the impact of global war without the privilege of speaking with first hand witnesses. As our parents and grandparents pass away, we must take the charge of carrying the vivid memories into the next century of learners.
This presents an excellent opportunity to incorporate visual and auditory primary sources into the classroom. Whether you’re teaching an entire unit on World War II or simply seeking a few images for students to examine, Pearl Harbor provides stunning images for student investigation. The art behind the propaganda that followed is also worth exploring in a discussion about the power of imagery.
Included below are a variety of visual resources, lesson plans, and other sites within the LOC website to help integrate these memories into your teaching. As the Greatest Generation fades into our nation’s memory, we owe them the debt of our freedom to continue sharing their stories with generations to come.
My husband was clearing out an old file cabinet the other day, and handed me a brochure he picked up years ago in Indiana. It was about a local Lustron house. He knew I’d be pleased to see it, since I have always loved these architectural oddities. Lustron houses are prefabricated homes made from enameled steel. They are instantly recognizable, with their square siding panels in pastel shades. Built between 1948 and 1950, the Lustron houses that remain today are usually in good condition, as the porcelain enamel finish is highly durable. These houses were designed in answer to the housing crisis after World War II: they were prefabricated from steel and were delivered to the building site, where local contractors assembled them. They were quick to build, and easy to care for. They were practical and efficient, with no wasted space; bedrooms had sliding doors and built-in storage. Despite their well-designed and affordable product, the company quickly went bankrupt. Financial problems and production delays put the company on shaky footing. Some say that traditional building trades were feeling threatened by the idea of a house that needed little or no maintenance, and that these unions worked against the company.
What would students make of images and advertisements for Lustron homes? How are the houses similar to or different from homes familiar to them? If they were designing a low-maintenance home, what would it look like? What would it be made of?
I wonder how long the Lustron house would have endured had the company weathered its financial troubles better. The houses with their built-in features, including steel kitchen cabinetry and appliances such as the Thor Automagic (a washing machine which doubled as a dishwasher) would never need updating. While I see the appeal of a home that never needs painting, would residents resist the call of fashion, and remain satisfied with their house unchanged for decades? I think of all the home shows on television, which show home buyers complaining of outdated kitchens, or builders and designers making a living from remodeling homes built not so long ago. Could it be that enduring design was its own downfall?
Here are some ideas for further information on Lustron houses.
This is a treasure trove of vintage articles and brochures on the Lustron Corporation, from a good, but possibly no longer supported website from Ohio History Connection: http://apps.ohiohistory.org/lustronpreservation.org/htdocs/about/
It's Jackie Robinson day! This came to my attention because Philadelphia is issuing a formal apology to Mr. Robinson for the treatment he received from the Phillies. (For a news item on the apology, see here)
There are amazing photographs of Robertson in the Library of Congress collection, and a nice article here - as well as a great Collection Connection in the teacher resources section of the Library's Website.
The images age wonderful, powerful and evocative. However, my favorite Robinson-related item in the Library's collection is this hand-written copyright deposit sheet music (see image's down below).
I find it interesting, because while I can read music a little, it's not clear to me how this song should sound. I'd love to ask a room full of students what they think it might sound like, and why. I'd also ask them what they wonder about the lyrics. A the bottom of the first page and beginning of the second page, there are a bunch of names mentioned. Who might those people be?