• [Woman diving from pier], Johnston, J. S. (John S.), New York, NY 1892

Teacher Resource Guides

View and download our guides using the links below.

How to Use the Guides

1. Engage students with primary sources.
Draw on students’ prior knowledge of the topic and ask students to closely observe each image.
• Who created it?
• When was it created?
• Where does your eye go first?
• Help students see key details.
• What do you see that you didn’t expect? Encourage students to think about their personal response to the image.
• What feelings and thoughts does the image trigger in you?
• What questions does it raise?
2. Promote student inquiry.
Encourage students to speculate about each image, its creator, and its context.
• What was happening during this time period?
• What was the creator’s purpose in making this object?
• What does the creator do to get his or her point across?
• Who was this primary source’s audience?
• What biases or stereotypes do you see? Ask if this source agrees with other primary sources, or with what the students already know.
• Ask students to test their assumptions about the past.
• Ask students to find other primary or secondary sources that offer support or
3. Assess how students apply critical thinking and analysis skills to images.
• Have students summarize what they’ve learned.
• Ask for reasons and specific evidence to support their conclusions.
• Help students identify questions for further investigation and develop
strategies for how they might answer them.